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Melhores momentos da cobertura da E3 do Baixaki Jogos. In fact, there has been debates about the exact boundary between social gambling gambling habit and gambling disorder - GD Reilly and Smith, There are some reasons for the controversy surrouding GD.
First, when this condition was first introduced in Diagnostic and Statistical of Mental Disorders Third Edition American Psychiatric Association, , its diagnostic criteria had almost any evidenciary basis National Research Council, what historically raised doubts about the formal existence of the disorder.
Second, individuals who gamble recreationally could potentially have greater well-being relative to non-gamblers and this appears to be particularly comoon in older adults Desai et al.
Third, only a small proportion of the subjects who gamble develop GD. For example, for each individual with GD there are approximately 9 subjects presenting with social gambling Tavares et al.
However, during the last two decades the understanding of GD has envolved, an increasing ammount of research has been dedicated to the topic and currently there is relevant scientific support to this condition, including psychopathology, neurochemicals tests, brain imaging and genetic studies Reilly and Smith, ; American Psychiatric Association, In short, when gambling behavior becomes repetitive, problematic, persistent and leads to clinically relevant impairment or distress to the subject, we may characterize the behavior as Gambling Disorder — GD American Psychiatric Association, GD usually generates several relevant negative consequences such as financial problems, legal issues, relational conflicts and professional difficulties Wenzel and Dahl, Although a common form of gambling, the gambling behavior and psychopathology of GD associated with BAG has never been systematically studied.
By the end of the day the administration of the Zoo unveiled a picture that revealed the chosen animal Bueno, BAG went far beyond the limits of the Zoo, and the game evolved, broadening the possibilities of bets, and became hugely popular first in Rio de Janeiro and, then throughout Brazil Bueno, , Vaz, , Chazkel, , Da Matta e Soarez , Misse ; Mathias et al.
Two of the main reasons for the growth in popularity were: It is estimated that there are approximately The majority of the available research regarding BAG has used sociological, anthropological and historical approaches.
A similar approach was used by Chazkel , who additionally described judicial issues related to BAG Chazkel, The work conducted by Misse described the association of the game with organized crime, Carnival and drug dealing Misse, Vaz reports on BAG as a means of describing illegal gambling in Rio de Janeiro and New York and how they are correlated with corruption Vaz, Mathias et al. They investigated the association between substance-use disorders and gambling problems in patients.
They found that BAG, along with lottery, were the most played games by people with substance-use disorders and GD Mathias et al. The rates were not provided and there was not a psychopathological approach to BAG. There is scant research literature concerning BAG. In light of the current issues with the literature, the aim of this study is to conduct, the first study approaching gambling behavior and psychopathology of GD due to BAG.
We assessed in a standardized and systematic way demographics, gambling behavior and psychopathological variables in adults 63 with GD due to BAG and patients with GD associated with other forms of gambling as a comparison group.
Our hypothesis is that GD due to BAG presents in unique clinical ways and that this comparison may lead to a better understanding of its presentation and might suggest more tailored and effective therapeutic approaches. The individuals sought the Institute voluntarily to participate in clinical treatment. The sample was enlisted from to Exclusion criteria were: The criteria obtained before the release of DSM-5 were electronically saved and, then, retrospectively processed for a proper adaptation to current DSM-5 GD criteria.
Patients were assessed for main types of games played. Each subject was asked to list, preferably 1, or also 2 main forms of gambling if the patient considered that both forms of gambling were equally important. This choice should be made regarding frequency of gambling, amount money bet, negative consequences and worries associated with the game.
We considered with GD due to BAG the participants who listed this game as the only main form of gambling or as 1 of 2 main forms of gambling when the subject considered that 2 forms of gambling were equally important.
All participants were evaluated for age, gender, ethnicity, educational level and marital status. We evaluated the following variables associated with gambling behavior including GD course, specific DSM-5 criteria and illegal acts correlated to gambling:.
GD course: According to Grant and Potenza, the course of GD can give important information about triggers and progression of the disorder Grant and Potenza, Illegal acts associated with gambling: We assessed several variables associated with psychopathology, which focus mainly on phenomenology and severity:.
DSM-5 GD criteria associated with psychopathology: Urges to gamble during the past week: GD severity: GD severity was assessed in two different ways; 1 by the total number of DSM-5 criteria endorsed, which is related to different levels of severity American Psychiatric Association ; and 2 by the total G-SAS score Kim et al, Psychiatric comorbidities: This instrument is usually performed in approximately 45 minutes and was applied by professionals after a brief clinical training.
First, a univariate comparison between the two groups was conducted. They were compared for demographics, psychopathological variables and gambling behavior variables. We used Chi-square test for categorical variables. ANOVA and Mann-Whitney's tests were conducted to assess, respectively, continuous variables with normal and non-parametric distributions.
A significance level p of 0. We also performed a binary logistic regression model where we introduced all the clinically significant and statistically relevant variables p of 0. A forward strategy was used to achieve a final model that suggest the most significant variables that differentiate the patients with GD due to BAG and subjects with GD associated with other forms of gambling.
We collected written informed consent from all participants of this research. The demographic comparison between patients with gambling disorder due to BAG compared to GD associated with other games demonstrated relevant differences in all variables evaluated except ethcinity, which was not statistically significant Table 1 presents the results for demographics.
In short, BAG gamblers were older, predominantly males, achieved a lower educational level and were more frequently partnered. Demographics of patients with gambling disorder due to Brazilian animal game BAG compared to gambling disorder GD associated with other games. Table 2 displays the main forms of games played by the comparison group, which consisted of subjects with GD due to other games. Non-strategic games were the most common, particularly the electronic machines.
Description of main forms of games played by patients with gambling disorder associated with games other than Brazilian Animal Game comparison group. This choice was made considering frequency of gambling, amount money bet, negative consequences and worries associated with the game.
In terms of gambling behavior the comparison also showed significant differences Table 3. BAG players sought treatment for the first time at an older age, had slower progression from recreational gambling to GD and a longer lag time between GD and seeking treatment.
There was no statistical difference on GD severity or psychiatric comorbidities between the samples. Psychopathological variables of patients with gambling disorder due to Brazilian animal game BAG compared to gambling disorder associated with other games. Finally, we conducted a forward binary logistic regression to analyze which factors critically discriminate the two samples.
In this model the main form of game was the dependent variable BAG group versus other games and the covariates were the clinically relevant and statistically significant elements. The final model obtained Table 5 suggests the factors that are highly relevant to differentiate the samples.
Violence among intimate partners assumes several meanings for young people, including the inherent sense of ambivalence. Thus, it is urgent to take the problem as a focus of studies in the various areas of human, social and collective health sciences. A study indicated that, as far as physical aggression is concerned, girls are more victimized In addition, adolescents often find it difficult to perceive such aggressions as detrimental to their relationship, and often tend to associate controlling and jealous behavior as a sign of love Psic Teor Pesq.
Interface Botucatu. The interaction of the youth with the game revealed responses that refer to violent behavior. These responses, as well as situations in the game that dealt with situations of violence, were often neither problematized nor questioned by peers, understanding them as normal or acceptable situations. This finding is observed in the following report of a girl about a situation of the game about sexual violence, in which the partner touches her breasts, against her will.
If I did not like it, I would take it off [his hand]. F When not recognized, violence reflects a broader process of production and reproduction of symbolic violence, naturalized by a long historical process of cultural imprinting. These are, therefore, subtle mechanisms of domination and social exclusion used by individuals, groups or institutions In this line of conception about violence, some testimonies reveal how girls are being blamed for the violence experienced.
She should be aware that his boyfriend would do it. Dumb girl! Even women historically introjected such discourses, socially engendered by the symbol of the profane woman. The discourse of rape culture is also evidenced as violence that operates subtly through purely symbolic ways of language and communication that justify rape The logic of the relationship of male domination comes to impose and inculcate in men and women the entire negative properties attributed to feminine values.
This worldview is continually confirmed and legitimized by the very same practices it determines, conditioning the whole society to incorporate it. Thus, male domination has all the favorable conditions for its full exercise, since its primacy is affirmed and incorporated throughout the social structure, as a result of ideological mechanisms that hide or conceal reality In this study, the discourses show a banalization and naturalization in relation to certain acts of aggression, which are not understood as violence by the subjects, aspect that invisibilizes the phenomenon as a problem for this social group.
The relationships among adolescents are part of a context of relationships influenced by gender models and norms, which constitute inequities, determinants of violence and their invisibility. Psychological, sexual violence and violence in cyberspace appear in the discourse as common situations, trivialized and justified by female guilt.
The social image around affective relations refers to idealistic conceptions of relationship. The testimonies, especially of the girls, point to a discourse that is related to the socially constructed ideology based on the symbol of romantic love.
From this imaginary, relations are conceived as monogamous and conflict-free. It is important to emphasize that the idealization of relations curtails the development of assertive attitudes for conflict resolution. From the moment she is interested in other people there is something wrong. When you are dating, theoretically, you only have eyes for your partner. F Respect her boyfriend, the one who loves do not betray. F I would die of sadness.
You do everything, and even so she cheats on you? M The findings reveal the reproduction of patterns of idealized relationships, which bring the idea of fidelity as central in conceptions about affective-sexual relations.
The testimonies also revealed jealousy and infidelity as triggers of situations of physical violence. It is important to emphasize the importance of media influence on the production of socialized values between this generation and how the representation of affective-sexual relations and violence in these relationships is conveyed, problematized or naturalized by young people.
I would punch him in the face. Respondents presented significant agreement with the idea that infidelity or jealousy would justify the occurrence of aggression in a relationship.
In addition to being valued as a manifestation of care and proof of love, jealousy is an important mobilizer of conflicts and violence in the affective-sexual relationships among young people Studies Rev Esc Enferm. Intimate partner violence in adolescence: an analysis of gender and generation. Punishment for infidelity constitutes a historically constituted fact aided by cultural symbols and norms, based on patriarchy, authorizing violence as a form of punishment of female infidelity. In this study, physical violence triggered by infidelity appears crystallized and not problematized.
This aspect reiterates a discourse of primacy of male domination inscribed and reproduced in the imaginary of boys and girls, both products of the same androcentric social structure Even in courtship, adolescents expressed multiple possibilities for relationships, depending on prior agreement. Thus, this category reveals loyalty as an important issue, as represented below. I would reflect and remember that I have also betrayed. But I would talk to my partner to make a deal so it would never happen again.
F I would enter into a free love agreement.
But I think we must talk. F It is important to emphasize that, despite the revealed ambivalences and complexities, some critical manifestations signal the re significance of conceptions about affective-sexual relations. Assertive conceptions of conflict resolution that point to the critique of idealized patterns are expressed, above all, by girls. These responses have sometimes been commented upon by a discourse of refusal and negative peer evaluation.
In some situations, such statements were answered with comments expressing a change of opinion or apology.
The following are examples of some of these dialogues generated by the game. Situation A [Boy]: Stop being a bitch. Situation B [Boy]: Whatever! Do what you prefer! If you want to have sex, go for it! Situation C [Comment on a player's response to the multiple-choice situation in which the girl does not want a sexual relationship at that time. The player chose the alternative in which the girl was supposed to masturbate her boyfriend] [Girl]: Imagine how annoying it must be for the girl to masturbate her boyfriend without any desire.
If she is not in the mood will she do something out of obligation? It's annoying for both of us. Masturbation is nevertheless a form of sex and not wanting it is her choice. The findings reveal the potential of the games in the construction of dialogical relations.