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The guests On Board of the Titanic, there were a lot of the most important persons of this period. Or Thomas Andrews, a nephew of Lord Pirrie, was director of Harland and Wolff and also the leader of the developing branch of this firm. Without him, Titanic would never have come so far.
He was the man to transform the idea of Titanic into a floating reality, a respectable effort for a man who had not reached the age of forty.
He was probably the man who knew the ship better than any other man in the whole world. He wanted to explore the ship and remove occurring errors with the nine workers of Harland and Wolff, who were under his command. Also he was noting improvements that could be made in Idea to form a whole ship class out of the Titanic. Accommodated in the first class there were some of the wealthiest people in the world like John Jacob, who was famous due to his yacht crashes during almost every regatta, he was returning with his wife from a European voyage.
Also, Isidor Straus was on board, he was director of Macy's department store and returned from a tour through the south of France together with his wife Ida.
Benjamin Guggenheim, who was known as a notorious playboy, was travelling with his mistress, Madame Aubert from Paris on Titanic, although he was married.
Margaret Brown was called due to her silhouette "Molly Brown". She was married to a millionaire in Colorado, USA, but travelled alone. It was her, who fought in the lifeboat for rescuing people out of the icy water. Second class accommodated also some important persons like Lawrence Beesley, a British school teacher, who delivered a book about the events surrounding Titanic's sinking.
He wrote about the motions being in danger and being rescued. The third class contained mainly Scandinavian passengers. White Star did a lot of advertisement in Norway and Sweden, where it had built up a net of ticket agencies. But most of the emigrants just wanted to take the next liner, which has been Titanic.
This dock was especially built to accommodate giants like Titanic and Olympic. To guide her into the harbour of Southampton five tugs had to be used.
Southampton was the main point of crew embarkation. For this ship there were crew members to board. As she was a "R. S", which means "Royal Mail Steamer", a ship, legally commissioned by the British Monarchy and the government of the USA to carry mail , thousands of sacks of mail had to be stored in the freight compartments.
The list of the enormous food amount is too long to be written down here, except an excerption: To accommodate 2, passengers for nearly a week, giant amounts of food were boarded. See table XX A problem, which nearly delayed the voyage, was a heavy strike of the coal miners that ended on April 6th. But it was not early enough to supply Titanic with enough "fuel". So White Star bought the coal stock of five other ships and the rest of coal Olympic had left as she started her voyage on April 3 rd.
That way, the coal stock of Titanic rose from tons to tons. It took 24 hours to store the coal in the coal bunkers and to clean up the gantries and the decks. During the week in the Harbour of Southampton, Titanic consumed tons to power the crane and to produce electricity. Also, general cargo was loaded, almost tons including 11, pieces. A Jumbo jet is able to carry only tons of cargo. In Cherbourg and in Queenstown tenders had to be built due to the small harbours.
The Leaving in Southampton After seven days, all preparations for the begin of Titanic's maiden voyage were done. Most of the officers, the radio operators, some stokers and a few other members of the crew, made up the "skeleton crew" and stayed on board since Tuesday, April 9th. Captain Smith preferred to stay in a hotel. The crew started boarding at 6 o'clock in the morning of Wednesday, April 10th.
Captain Smith got on board his ship at half past seven. Ismay checked in right after breakfast which he had with his family in the South Western Hotel in Southampton and not on board Titanic.
As his family was not joining him on this voyage, he showed them Titanic as long as they were in town. Thomas Andrews was staying on Board since the arrival in Southampton on April 4th. He was supervising all actions happening around "his" vessel and the last-minute changes that had to be taken.
Between half past nine and half past eleven three trains were arriving. These trains were the White Star boat-trains and carried the passengers booked on Titanic from London-Waterloo to the docks in Southampton. Each class had its own train. The pilot, Captain George Boyer got on board. The pilot flag was hissed immediately.
Some minutes before noon, the blue Pete was hissed as an optic signal for the immediate leaving. All visitors from shore, shore staff and harbour workers left Titanic. At noon, Captain Smith horned the enormous pipe three times, what drowned everything in Southampton. Everybody knew, Titanic was leaving. Nobody knew it would be the last time this ship would be in the harbour of their town.
Titanic casted off from the shore and was towed away from the dock by the five tugs Ajax, Hector, Neptune, Hercules and Vulcan. Especially Vulcan played an important role by saving Titanic from the collision with the New York in the harbour. As the tugs had Titanic towed into the river Test and left her in the right position and facing the right course, the propellers of Titanic were activated.
She slowly accelerated up the river. The giant ship caused heavy turbulences in the water. On the left side of the vessel, the waves were harmless, because the river Test absorbed the waves.
But on the right side was the dock wall, where the Oceanic and the New York were tied on, due to the coal strike. The giant waves were too heavy for the New York and all of the six mooring ropes snapped. As the accelerating Titanic pulled enormous amounts after her , the stern of New York turned around toward Titanic due to the suction.
The New York was dangerously close to Titanic. Luckily, Captain Gale, commander of the tug Vulcan, managed to catch two ropes of New York's stern, which was only about three feet away of Titanic.
On the bridge of Titanic a fast reaction of the Captain and the pilot prevented a disaster, by ordering "Full Power back". Titanic slowed down and passed the New York dangerously close, but Vulcan had her under control. The other ship, the Oceanic was secured by additional ropes, to prevent a repetition. So the departure of Titanic has been delayed for more than one hour, which meant no good start and was a bad omen for many people of this period.
Would Titanic be an ever delayed and unhappy vessel for ever? Time should give an answer - maybe. The Journey Titanic now made her voyage down the Ocean Channel, passing the Isle of Wright to the lightship Nab , where the pilot left.
With best wishes and an announcement to meet again after 14 days, "Uncle George" left the Titanic. Titanic headed for Cherbourg, France. It was only a 70 mile trip through the channel.
She arrived half past five p. As the docks of the harbour of Cherbourg were too small, Titanic had to wait off the docks. The passengers were brought on board Titanic by 2 tenders, Nomadic first and second class and Traffic third class , built only for this occasion for White Star by Harland and Wolff. All of the passengers were carried to Cherbourg by the Train Transatlantique, which was in time after six hours of journey from Paris to the Atlantic Coast.
Twenty-two persons left Titanic, having just booked a channel passage. Within ninety minutes, Titanic was ready for departure and so, for the second time, her pipe cut the silence of this beautiful evening, announcing for miles Titanic being ready for departure. At ten minutes past eight the enormous anchor was raised and Titanic left Cherbourg for the last time, heading for Queenstown, Ireland. Crossing the channel and passing the British coast, she reached the Irish Coast under a beautiful sunrise.
At half past eleven, Titanic set the giant anchor for the last time, two miles away from the harbour of Queenstown. The two tenders America and Ireland boarded passengers and sacks of mail were loaded.
At half past one p. Titanic set sail for New York and the journey finally began. This was the last time a man from the shore had seen Titanic. Travelling into the Ice The winter of the year has been one of the mildest for the last three decades. So giant icefields, ice floats and icebergs were drifting around more south than normal.
Otherwise, the winter had been strong enough to prevent a melting of the ice through the Gulf stream. Far more icebergs and ice floats from Greenland rushed into the North Atlantic. Some of these huge creatures reminded on mountains or giant buildings, but some looked like ships. Four fifths of an iceberg are covered underwater. Than more of an iceberg is melting away, than worse moves the center of gravity, until the whole iceberg turns over and changes his look completely.
If this happens, the part of an iceberg, which is over water gets dark and is harder to recognise at night. If the upper part melts away, the iceberg turns back to white. Although it is a big risk to approach an iceberg.
Close to the waterline, the iceberg is as sharp as a razor blade and could slice up a ship like a can. There were a lot ice-warnings. On April 11th, five ships reported ice. Four more ice-warnings were reported on April 12th. Three more the next day and finally, Sunday April 14th brought seven more ice-warnings. All ships stopped due to the ice, and all icefields that were reported were on the course of Titanic.
The Crash So Titanic made her voyage constantly, taking more than miles of her route per day.
She was running out in the Atlantic at fine, cold weather with an speed of 21 knots. Not all boilers had been lit. White Star always ran their ships on their first voyages at reduced speed. Due to this fact, Titanic was running very smooth.
She ran without vibrations and behaved with an respectable steadiness although the speed was increasing. On Saturday April 13th, the fire in boiler room number 6 had been finally extinguished. But the watertight doors of this compartment had been severe damaged by the heat of that fire. On Sunday April 14 th, Titanic continued the voyage at fine weather. While many passengers of this ship watched the sunset for the last time in their life, Captain Smith corrected the course of Titanic slightly to south and west of its normal route, perhaps as a precaution to avoid contact with the ice of which many ships warned.
But there were no orders given to decrease speed, in fact, at that time, Titanic's speed was increasing. At half past eight, three ice-warnings were given to Titanic by the Californian indicating that ice was only 50 miles ahead.
Captain Smith retired for night around half past nine giving the unusual order to rouse him "if it becomes doubtful at all". So the first officer Lightoller remembered the lookouts Fleet and Lee to watch out for ice very carefully until morning. Altogether, the ice-warnings given to Titanic on that day showed a huge icefield that was 78 miles long and directly in front of the Titanic.
Fatefully, these warnings were ignored. At eleven o'clock p. Titanic radio operators responded the warnings very unfriendly. Phillip responded with the famous reply "Keep out! Shut up! You're jamming my signal. I'm working Cape Race". After that derogative message, the radio operator of the Californian shut down his set for that night, not knowing that it has been their last contact with Titanic. At this time, Titanic was running over 22 knots and 24 of the 29 boilers were fired.
Titanic was never going faster than that speed. At half past eleven, the lookouts saw a slight haze appearing directly ahead. At eleven-forty Fleet saw a large iceberg directly ahead and alarmed the bridge. The alarm was recognised on the bridge by sixth officer Moody, who handed over to Murdoch.
Murdoch gave an instinctive order. He ordered Titanic to keep "hard starboard", gave the command "Stop, full astern" to the engine room and let the fifteen watertight doors close at the same time.
But it was too late. Although Titanic drifted to port she scrapped the iceberg for a length of over feet. Only a few persons on board Titanic noticed this collision. This fateful contact of 10 seconds with the ice sliced up the iron hull under the water line.
It opened up five compartments fully to the sea. The coal bunker servicing boiler number nine was also flooded. Five minutes before midnight, only fifteen minutes after the collision, the "G" deck has been already flooded.
After a quick inspection of the damage taken by the collision, Wilde, Boxhall and Andrews came to a terrible conclusion. After having had the report of them, Captain Smith knew that the unexpected happened. Titanic was sinking and the more than two thousand two hundred people were in extreme danger, having only slightly more than two hours left.
With a heavy heart, Smith personally took Titanic's last position, worked out by Boxhall, to the radio room. Handing his paper over to Phillips shortly after midnight, he ordered a call for assistance. Phillip tapped out the distress signal CQD The Sinking and the Tragedy Although Titanic was constructed to be unsinkable, this vessel in fact could sink and did.
But how could that happen? Titanic was lost from the moment the fifth compartment was flooded. She could stay afloat with four of the five bow compartments. Only the first compartment reached up to the highest deck C-Deck , compartments two and eleven to fifteen reached only up to the second highest deck D-Deck , while the other compartments reached only up to the third highest deck EDeck.
The first four compartments would have kept the water in it, preventing a flooding of the niveau of D-Deck.
But the flooded fifth compartment boiler room number six reached only up to the E-Deck. This caused a flow over into compartment number six, which pushed down the hull until the bitter end had come and ground was reached. Shortly after midnight, the Squash court, 32 feet above keel, has already been flooded.
The majority of the boilers had been extinguished by the incoming water and so huge clouds of steam came out of the security vents aside of the funnels. Captain Smith ordered to uncover the lifeboats and to muster the crew and the passengers, knowing that there would be only room for 1, people out of estimated 2, people on board, if every boat was filled up to it's maximum capacity. Between 10 minutes past midnight and ten minutes to two o'clock in the morning, the crew of the Californian, which had been only 19 miles away, close enough to give quick aid, noticed the distress rockets fired up by Titanic.
But the Crew did not react, thinking it would just have been some fireworks. A lot of ships had received Titanic's distress calls and were approaching to help, but they were too far away. The Cunard liner Carpathia was the vessel that was closest, but had still been 59 miles away. The Captain of the Carpathia, Arthur Roston, had already been asleep as he had been waken by his radio operator.
He ran up to the bridge and set direct course to Titanic. He also woke his crew, to prepare his ship for rescuing the people, knowing that not much time has been left. So the crew started overheating the ten year old boilers to let their ship go faster than ever. Carpathia was riding along with more than 17 knots, much faster than her registered Roston behaved like it is taught in every marine schoolbook.
Cabins and dining rooms were prepared, hot coffee and a hot soup were cooked, nets and lights were fixed to the outside of the vessel, the gangway and some special devices for fishing out persons were prepared, and even oil was kept ready for taming the wild sea. Meanwhile, twenty-five minutes past midnight the first lifeboats on board Titanic had been loaded with women and children and were lowered away, filled up with only 28 persons, able to carry Nobody really believed Titanic could be sinking.
Many passengers told their maids to boil hot water, thinking of having a cup of tea after returning from that "test". At the same time the first distress rocket was fired. These rockets soared feet up in the air and exploded into twelve brilliant white stars under a loud report. Officer Boxhall saw a ship appear and then disappear after having tried to contact it with a Morse lamp.
At a quarter past one o'clock, Titanic had only one hour left, the name on the bow was already covered by water and she began listing to port. By that time already seven boats have been lowered filled up only with far fewer passengers and crew than rated capacity. While the chaos on deck was growing, the boats began to be more fully loaded, starting with the starboard lifeboat number 9, that was lowered at twenty minutes past nine, when only less than one hour had been left. At that time, the Titanic had developed a heavy list to starboard.
At half past one, as only half of an hour was left to live, signs of panic occurred as port lifeboat number 14 had been lowered, keeping 60 people, including fifth officer Lowe. He was forced to fire three warning shots along the side of the vessel to stop a group of unruly passengers jumping into the full lifeboat. Bruce Ismay left at a. He was disliked for having left his own ship and leaving more than thousand people on a sinking ship.
At this time the water was only ten feet below the promenade deck. Hartley had always said it would be the hymn he would select for his funeral.
At two o'clock, as Titanic had only minutes left, there were about 1, persons left on board and there was only space for 47 passengers in the last collapsible lifeboat. Lightoller gave instructions to the crew to lock arms and to form a circle around the last lifeboat, allowing only women and children to get into the last lifeboat. At five minutes past two the last lifeboat, collapsible boat "D" left Titanic with only 44 instead of 47 possible persons on board.
At this time, the A deck was already under water, and Titanic's tilt was getting steeper and steeper. Smith went up to the radio cabin and released the radio operators Phillips and Bride by telling them that they had "done their duty". On his way back to his bridge, Captain Smith told several members of the crew that everybody had to fight for his own life "It's every man for himself".
His last thoughts were probably bound to his wife Eleanor and his daughter Helen. The stern began to lift clear of the water and the passengers moved further and further to the back of the ship.
At a. Father Thomas Byles, a prayer on board Titanic, gave confessional advice to the passengers, mostly 2nd and 3rd class, at the back of the boat deck.
One minute later a huge roar went through the hull of Titanic when all movable objects slid down to the submerged bow. Suddenly the lights blinked once and then shut down for ever, leaving Titanic as an dark silhouette against the clear sky full of stars. The iron hull broke between the third and the fourth funnel. The stern of the ship settled back, digging some hundreds of swimming persons under itself. Then, the stern achieved for several minutes a completely perpendicular position.
At twenty minutes past ten it slid into the ice- cold ocean down to the bed of the North Atlantic some 13, feet below water line. About 1, passengers and crew members lost their life. Most of them were passengers of the third class.
As the third class was separated form first and second class, lattices locked the stair cases leading to the promenade deck, where the lifeboats have been boarded.
Most of the third class passengers had no chance to escape from their decks and had to drown like rats. But also some important first class passengers died. Benjamin Guggenheim preferred to die giving his place to women and children.
As he heard about the fate of Titanic, he went with his manservant into his cabin, putting on their best suits. Then they sat waiting in the Grand Saloon. He explained their behaviour with the famous sentence "We've dressed up in our best and are prepared to go down like gentlemen". Also, Isidor Straus preferred to die, helping a pregnant woman getting into the lifeboat where he should take place. John Astor set his wife into the lifeboat and stayed on board like many other men, behaving like a gentleman.
Many passengers jumped over board. Being Rescued Captain Roston navigated his feet long vessel at full speed through the icefield. At half past two, all preparations for rescuing the survivors had been done. From three o'clock on, Roston ordered to fire up rockets every quarter of an hour. At , the Carpathia reached the position where Titanic should have been, but there was no ship, only ice. At four o'clock Carpathia stopped her engines, and soon a green position lamp has been expected.
About ten minutes later, the first survivors climbed on board Carpathia. By a. She arrived at a. True to his rules, Lightoller as the highest surviving officer came as the last survivor on board Carpathia.
At ten minutes to nine, the California continued to search for survivors, and the Carpathia set course for New York. As she carried survivors, persons had been lost. Bruce Ismay sent out the following message to White Star's New York office : "Deeply regret advise you Titanic sank this morning after collision with iceberg, resulting in serious loss of life. Full particulars later. No matter if the questions were private or official.
Even a personal question of President Taft about his close friend Major Archibald Butt remained unanswered. It was a big problem to transmit the names of the survivors, because the radio communication was of bad quality. So president Taft forbid all radio contacts, except the contact between Carpathia and New York. Later, even the Navy Cruiser Chester was ordered to give company to Carpathia and to help her with his powerful radio equipment.
On April 17th, as Carpathia has been approaching New York, the names of the survivors were known. On April 18th, 4 days after the collision, Carpathia arrived in the harbour of New York in pouring rain about half past eight in the evening. She was escorted by ships crowded with reporters. On the White Star piers 59 and 60, where Titanic's voyage should have ended, she dropped the thirteen lifeboats of Titanic. These lifeboats were the only thing left of the most giant liner in the world and were kept for a long time at these pier, until they were rotten or damaged by souvenirhunters.
At half past nine, Carpathia reached her pier and the survivors could leave the vessel. The survivors of the third class left the ship at about eleven p. Most of them had lost everything they owned. White Star line gave immediate aid, supported by many local caritative aid stations. What Happened after this Tragedy? Lardner, to search for dead bodies in the region where Titanic had sunk. More than 40 specialists came to help; they all were getting a doubled payment for their unpleasant work.
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